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手套比口罩更重要!美国卫生专家撰文:如何预防“武汉”冠状病毒感染

返回列表 来源: 发布日期: 2020.01.29

劳里·加勒特(Laurie Garrett)是美国著名女记者,是获得皮博迪奖(The Peabody Award)、乔治 · 伯克奖(George Polk Award)和普利策奖(Pulitzer Award)三大著名新闻奖的第一人。现为美国对外关系委员会全球卫生高级研究员。


劳里·加勒特(Laurie Garrett)


她曾对埃博拉、SARS 等大型传染病和公共健康危机都做过实地考察与深度研究,出版了《失信: 全球公共卫生事业之瘫痪》《流行天下! 传染病的世界》《逼近的瘟疫》等多部关于传染病与公共卫生的著作。


对于这一次的2019-nCoV病毒带来的恐慌,她撰文讲述了自己面对传染病的经验与知识,以及10个在疫情期间保护自己的预防措施,来看看吧——


how to stay safe


01.

When you leave your home, wear gloves—winter mittens or outdoor gloves—and keep them on in subways, buses, and public spaces.

出门离家时,戴上手套 ——冬天的手套或是户外手套都可以——任何公共场合包括地铁,公交都不要脱下来。



02.

If you are in a social situation where you should remove your gloves, perhaps to shake hands or dine, do not touch your face or eyes, no matter how much something itches. Keep your hands away from contact with your face. And before you put your gloves back on, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water, scrubbing the fingers. Put your gloves on.

在某些需要脱下手套的社交场合,比如握手和吃饭时,不要用手接触你的脸或眼睛, 不管有多痒都不要让你的手接触你的脸。在戴回手套前,用温水和肥皂仔细洗手,好好搓洗手指,再戴上手套。



03.

Change gloves daily, washing them thoroughly, and avoid wearing damp gloves.

每天更换手套,仔细清洗。 不要戴潮湿的手套。


04.

Masks are useless when worn outdoors and may not be very helpful even indoors. Most masks deteriorate after one or two wearings. Using the same mask day after day is worse than useless—it’s disgusting, as the contents of your mouth and nose eventually coat the inside of the mask with a smelly veneer that is attractive to bacteria. I rarely wear a face mask in an epidemic, and I have been in more than 30 outbreaks. 

口罩使用一次很有必要。重复使用,则口罩在户外佩戴时毫无用处,即使在室内用处也不大。大多口罩在被使用一两次后就被污染了,重复同一口罩比不戴口罩更糟糕 因为从你嘴和鼻子的呼出的物质最终会在口罩内部形成一层十分滋养细菌的,发臭的膜。在传染病流行期间我很少重复戴口罩,我曾经经历过这种状况超过30次。


Instead, I stay away from crowds, and I keep my distance from individual people—a half meter, about 1.5 feet, is a good standard. If someone is coughing or sneezing, I ask them to put on a mask—to protect me from their potentially contaminated fluids. If they decline, I step a meter (about 3 feet) away from them, or I leave. Don’t shake hands or hug people—politely beg off, saying it’s better for both of you not to come in close contact during an epidemic.

相反,我会远离人群,并且与个人保持距离 ——差不多半米左右是比较好的标准。要是有人咳嗽或是打喷嚏,我会请他们戴上口罩, 来保护我免受潜在的有污染的液体伤害。如果他们拒绝,我会走到一米的距离之外,或者干脆离开。不要与人握手或拥抱 ,告诉对方在传染病流行期间不要靠太近,这对彼此都好。



戴口罩预防冠状病毒




05.

Inside your household, remove all of the towels from your bathrooms and kitchen immediately, and replace them with clean towels that have the names of each family member on them. Instruct everybody in your home to only use their own towels and never touch another family member’s. Wash all towels twice a week. Damp towels provide terrific homes for viruses, like common colds, flus, and, yes, coronaviruses.

在家里要马上给浴室和厨房都换上干净的毛巾 ,让家里每个人都用自己的专属毛巾,不去触碰别人的。每周洗两次毛巾。湿毛巾会为病毒滋生提供温床,例如普通感冒,流感,以及冠状病毒。



06. 

Be careful with doorknobs. If it’s possible to open and close doors using your elbows or shoulders, do so. Wear gloves to turn a doorknob—or wash your hands after touching it. If anybody in your home takes sick, wash your doorknobs regularly. Similarly, be cautious with stairway banisters, desktops, cell phones, toys, laptops—any objects that are hand-held. 

小心门把手,最好用肘部或肩膀去开关门。戴手套去拧门把手,或者在触摸了门把手后去洗手。 如果家里有病人,定期清洁门把手。同样,对待楼梯扶手,桌面,手机,玩具,笔记本电脑等任何手持物体都要小心谨慎。


As long as you handle o nly your own personal objects, you will be ok—but if you need to pick up someone else’s cell phone or cooking tools or use someone else’s computer keyboard, be mindful of not touching your face and wash your hands immediately after touching the object.

只要你只接触自己的私人物品,就没什么问题。但是,如果你需要使用别人的手机,厨具或电脑键盘,请注意不要触摸脸部,并在触摸物体后立即去洗手。



07.

If you share meals, do not use your personal chopsticks and utensils to remove food from a serving bowl or plate and, of course, tell your children to never drink out of anybody else’s cups or from a container of shared fluid. Place serving spoons in each dish and instruct everybody at the table to scoop what they want from the serving dishes onto their personal plates or bowls, return the serving spoon to the main dish, and then use their personal chopsticks only to pick food from their personal plate or bowl into their mouth. 

吃饭时,不要用你自己的筷子和餐具去公碗和盘子里夹菜。 也要告诉你的孩子不要喝别人杯子或者容器里的水。在席上让每个人使用公勺将盘子里的菜夹到自己的盘子或者碗里,然后将公勺放回公盘,然后用自己的筷子将自己盘子或者碗里的食物送进嘴里。


Wash all food and kitchenware thoroughly between me als and avoid restaurants that have poor hygiene practices.

饭前仔细清洗食物,饭后仔细清洗餐具,不要去卫生条件不好的餐馆用餐。



武汉华南海鲜批发市场


08.

Absolutely do not buy, slaughter, or consume any live animal or fish until it is known what species was the source of the virus.

在病毒传播源被发现之前,绝对不要购买,屠宰,或是食用任何生鲜动物和鱼类。




09.

When the weather allows, open your windows at home or work, letting your space air out. The virus cannot linger in a well-ventilated space. But of course, if it is cold or the weather is inclement, keep warm and close those windows.

天气条件允许的情况下,打开家里或办公室的窗户,让室内空气流通, 病毒无法在通风条件良好的空间里停留。当然,如果天气严寒,就关窗保暖。



10.

Finally, if you are caring for a friend or family member who is running a fever, always wear a tight-fitting mask when you are near them, and place one on the ailing person (unless they are nauseated). 

最后,如果你在照顾得病的朋友或家人,在靠近他们时,一定要时刻佩戴与面部紧贴的口罩,并给他们也戴上(除非他们感到恶心)。


When you replace an old, dirty mask from the face of your friend or loved one be very, very careful—assume, for the sake of your protection, that it is covered in viruses, and handle it while wearing latex gloves, place it inside of a disposable container, seal it, and then put it in the trash. While wearing those latex gloves, gently wash the patient’s face with warm soap and water, using a disposable paper towel or cotton swab, and seal it after use in a container or plastic bag before placing it in your household trash. 

当你帮忙从朋友或亲人的脸上摘除使用过的脏口罩时,请务必要非常小心 ——为了保护自己,你必须假设该口罩已被病毒覆盖,戴上乳胶手套去进行处理,将其放进可丢弃的包装袋内,密封好,然后再丢进垃圾桶。戴上乳胶手套为患者用纸巾和棉球轻轻地用肥皂和温水清洗患者的面部,并在使用后将其密封好装入包装袋或塑料袋中,然后再丢进家里的垃圾箱。


Wear long-sleeved shirts and clothing that covers your body when you are caring for your ailing friend or relative. Clean everything your patient wears or touches very thoroughly in hot soapy water, including sheets, towels, and utensils.

在照顾生病的朋友或家人时, 要穿上能包裹全身的长袖衣物。 用热肥皂水彻底清洗患者所穿过的衣物和接触的所有物品,包括床单,毛巾和器皿。


If you have space, isolate the sick person in your household in a room, or a corner of a room, where they are comfortable, but separated from the rest of the household. If the weather is tolerable, open a window that is on the opposite side of the room, so that air gently blows past the patient’s face and then outdoors. Of course, don’t do this if it is very cold, as your friend or loved one will be made sicker if uncomfortably cold.

如果你家里有足够的空间, 为病人隔离出一个房间或房间的一角, 让他们感到舒适的同时又与家庭中的其他人分开。如果天气适宜,打开房间另一侧的窗户,这样空气能轻轻吹过患者的面部后,流动吹到室外。当然,如果天气很冷就不要这样做,因为你的朋友和家人可能会因寒冷而病情加重。


The Chinese government will take very drastic actions over the next few weeks, and this will be a time of hardship for the Chinese people.  But with these simple precautions, if taken by everybody in your household, building, office, and school, you will dramatically reduce the spread of the virus and bring the outbreak to its knees. Be safe. Do not panic. 

中国政府将在接下来的几周内采取更严厉的措施,这对中国人民来说将是一个艰难的时期。 但是,有了这些简单的预防措施,只要大家在家里 ,建筑物里 ,办公室和学校里都采取这些简单的预防措施。 就能大大减少该病毒的传播风险, 并遏制疫情爆发


Take commonsense precautions. As frightening as this time is, you will get through it.

注意安全。不要惊慌。采取一些常识性的预防措施。 眼下的状况虽然可怕,但你一定会渡过难关。


注:该文来源> 科奖中心>  英语世界  # 一字未变


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